BIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights)

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Table of Contents

BIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), IntroductionBiomass Energy in the Year 2000—The IssuesBackgroundThe Resurgence of Biomass EnergyA Commercial Opportunity for the Agricultural SectorIncentives for the Food-to-Biofuel TransitionThe Seemingly Intractable Problem of Farm SurplusesAn Energy Policy Including BiomassThe Risks of Biomass Energy CommercializationThe Current Importance of Biomass EnergyBarriers to Biomass Energy ProgressBiofuels—A Brief HistorySolid FuelsLiquid FuelsGaseous FuelsThe North–South Energy DivideIntroduction to the Third WorldA Daunting ProspectThe Energy Poverty of Developing CountriesTerms and DefinitionsTerms and DefinitionsBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Photosynthesis and Biomass YieldsSolar Energy—From Sun to EarthSolar Energy—From Sun to EarthMechanisms of PhotosynthesisMechanisms of PhotosynthesisPhotosynthetic EfficienciesPhotosynthetic EfficienciesPlant Biomass ProductivitiesPlant Biomass ProductivitiesEnergy FarmingEnergy FarmingBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Dedicated Biomass FeedstocksEnergy Forestry and Nonwoody (Herbaceous) Crops—An IntroductionOverviewBiomass Feedstocks in the USWoody and Herbaceous Crops—Production Technology for Improved ResultsShort-Rotation Woody Crops (SRWCs)Herbaceous Energy Crops (HECs)Strategies for Woody and Herbaceous Energy CropsBiotechnologically Improved Energy CropsOil CropsIntroductionCrops and YieldsConclusionsEconomic FactorsOverviewFeedstock Production Costs in the USEuropean and Other Countries’ Feedstock Production CostsOverviewBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Biomass Residues and WastesIntroductionIntroductionAgricultural and Forestry Residues and WastesThe Overall UK SceneThe US SituationComparisons with CoalMunicipal and Industrial WastesThe UK SceneThe US SituationEconomic; Commercial; Social and Political FactorsEconomic; Commercial; Social and Political FactorsBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Conversion Technologies and Energy ProductsFermentation to EthanolOverviewThe Fermentation and Distillation ProcessesEnergy ConservationEthanol-Gasoline BlendsVehicle PerformanceCommercial and Economic Factors Resulting from Vehicle ModificationsA Brief Interim SummaryTechno-Market Issues Involving Oxygenates and Octane NumbersCommercial and Economic AspectsAnaerobic Digestion to MethaneOverviewTechnology—Digester TypesSystem AdvancesLandfill SitesCurrent Economic Status and Future ProspectsThermochemical ConversionsIntroductionAdvanced Thermal Conversion TechnologiesRapid Thermal Processing (RTP)Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-OilsUtilization of Pyrolysis Oil in a Diesel Engine and Overall EconomicsCombustion of BiomassIntroductionElectricity from Biomass in the USTechnology OptionsWood CofiringBiomass for Electric Power—The Case of CaliforniaBiomass-Fueled Fluidized Bed CombustionCogeneration in FinlandBiodiesel from Vegetable Oils and Animal FatsOverview and RME (Rapeseed Oil Methyl Ester) CharacteristicsRME and Animal Tallow Production and PerformanceAnimal TallowVehicle Modifications and DemonstrationsCommercial and Economic FactorsBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Lignocellulosic Fermentation—Panacea or Cul-de-Sac?IntroductionIntroductionThe Difficulties of Fermenting Cellulose-Enzymatic HydrolysisThe Difficulties of Fermenting Cellulose-Enzymatic HydrolysisLignocellulose PretreatmentLignocellulose PretreatmentAcid Hydrolysis of LignocelluloseAcid Hydrolysis of LignocelluloseSimultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF)OverviewClostridial FermentationsOther Microbial FermentationsProcess Energy—Potential ReductionsProcess Energy—Potential ReductionsTechnoeconomic and Commercial PrognosisOverview Lignin UtilizationCost ReductionsA Practical ExampleThe FutureBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Biomass: The Power Behind the Third World?OverviewOverviewThe Energy Mix as a Reflection of Natural Socioeconomic IndicatorsThe Case of MalaysiaThe TechnologiesBiogas PlantsEnergy Crop Plantations Improved-Efficiency Cooking StovesElectric Power GenerationGasification; Pyrolysis and Ethanol FermentationAlgal CultivationBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Energy Analysis of Biomass SystemsConcept and MethodologyThe IFIAS ConventionAims and UsesEnergy Analysis of Biofuel Production SystemsEnergy Inputs to Feedstock ProductionBiodiesel EnergyEnergy Inputs to Ethanol Bioconversion PlantsOverall Ethanol Production Systems—In Temperate and Tropical ClimatesA Definitive Ethanol Production Energy Analysis at Triangle; ZimbabweEthanol from LignocelluloseBiogas ProductionThermochemical Biomass ConversionSystem ComparisonsBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), Biofuels and the EnvironmentPerspectives on Energy Crop Plantations and International PollutionOverviewCarbon Storage Versus Fossil Fuel SubstitutionEnvironmental ConsiderationsShort Rotation Forests—An Integrated Environmental AnalysisEnvironmental Effects of Biomass Conversion to EnergyThe Effect of Biomass Energy Crops on the Habitats of Local OrganismsThe Effect of Biomass Energy Crops on the Habitats of Local OrganismsNutrient Cycling in Energy Forest PlantationsNutrient Cycling in Energy Forest PlantationsEnvironmental Impacts of BiomassEnvironmental Impacts of BiomassBioethanol Emissions from Vehicle ExhaustsAs Gasoline SubstituteAs Diesel SubstituteSecondary PollutantsLife Cycle EmissionsConclusionsBiodiesel and Vegetable Oil Vehicle Exhaust EmissionsMethyl EstersUnmodified Vegetable OilsLife Cycle EmissionsBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), 2000 and BeyondBiomass—The Flexible FuelOverviewPlans for UK and EU BioenergyElectricity Generation from BiomassBioenergy for Heat and Combined Heat and Power (CHP) in the UKThe FutureAlternative Liquid Transport Fuels—The Future of BiofuelsOverview—Ethanol and MethanolAlcohols for Spark-Ignition EnginesTriglycerides for Compression-Ignition EnginesTallow Esters in Diesel EnginesBiodiesel Initiatives in the USHydrogen as an Energy CarrierHydrogen as an Energy CarrierGenetic and Enzyme EngineeringGenetic and Enzyme EngineeringBiomass Fuels to Offset US Fossil Fuel DependencyBiomass Fuels to Offset US Fossil Fuel DependencyBiofuel Cell TechnologyBiofuel Cell TechnologyBiodiesel from Vegetable Oils—The Fuel to Develop Third World Economies?IntroductionConversionsPerformanceEconomicsOther Products from Vegetable OilsEnvironmental ConsiderationsConclusionsHighlights for the New MillenniumIntroductionThe Kyoto ProtocolEU Goals for Renewable Energy by 2010The MTBE DebateEnergy from Waste in the USBiofuels Increase Significantly in the UKBIOMASS MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (Technical Insights), ResourcesCompaniesCompaniesAdditional ReadingAdditional ReadingBooksJournals




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