Money Down the Drain

An Overview of Non-revenue Water Costs and Opportunities in South Africa and Mozambique

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The African continent faces a growing battle for achieving adequate and safe access to power and potable water. Without addressing the need for power and water, Africa will not achieve its true growth potential as the “world’s last growth frontier”. Macro-economic forces such as climate change, growing populations, increasing urbanisation rates and deteriorating existing water infrastructure, are all encouraging local governments to shift towards Non-revenue water (NRW) reduction strategies. In collaboration, Frost & Sullivan and SIWI, conducted an “Analysis of the Investment Opportunities for Non-Revenue Water in South Africa and Mozambique”, with a more detailed assessment of two select municipalities per country. Using historic (2010) up to present day (2016) figures, a thorough understanding of the nature and size of the NRW problem, the size of the opportunity (both private and public sector), and the relative governance bottlenecks were identified.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary
Scope of the Analysis
Product Segment Scope
Supply Chain Scope
Analysed Geographic Scope
Strategic Implications of the Study
Suitability of the Project
Approach/Methodology of the Study
Problem Statement
Conclusions
2. Country Analysis: South Africa
Water Supply-Demand Analysis
3. Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality (Port Elizabeth), South Africa
Municipality Overview
Water Supply-Demand Analysis
Water Accessibility/Penetration
Water Consumption per Capita
Non-revenue Water (NRW)
Component/Category-wise Split for NRW
Value of Revenue Losses due to Accounting and Billing Problems
Water Tariff Analysis and Trends
4. City of Tshwane (Pretoria), South Africa
Municipality Overview
Water Supply-Demand Analysis
Water Accessibility/Penetration
Water Consumption per Capita
Non-revenue Water (NRW)
Component/Category-wise Split for NRW
Value of Revenue Losses due to Accounting and Billing Problems
Water Tariff Analysis and Trends
5. Country Analysis: Mozambique
Water Supply-Demand Analysis
6. City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique
Municipality Overview
Water Supply-Demand Analysis
Water Accessibility/Penetration
Water Consumption per Capita
Non-revenue Water (NRW)
Component/Category-wise Split for NRW
Value of Revenue Losses due to Accounting and Billing Problems
Water Tariff Analysis and Trends
Economic Losses Associated with NRW (Energy, Chemical, etc. Lost per m3 of Water Lost)
7. City of Beira, Mozambique
Municipality Overview
Water Supply-Demand Analysis
Water Accessibility/Penetration
Water Consumption Per Capita
Non-revenue Water (NRW)
Component/Category-wise Split for NRW
Water Tariff Analysis and Trends
Economic Losses Associated with NRW (Energy, Chemical, etc. Lost per m3 of Water Lost)
8. NRW Governance Bottlenecks and Opportunities: South Africa and Mozambique
9. South Africa
Overview of the Institutional Landscape
Incentives to Reduce NRW
Water Security Incentives
Financial Sustainability Incentives
The Origins of the Current Asset Management Financing and Practice in South Africa
10. Cross-country Analysis
Institutional Barriers and Opportunities
Tariffs
Experience with Private Sector Engagement (Water Supply Concessions and Lease Contracts)
Legal Systems
Vested Interests
Economies of Scale
Capacity for Infrastructure Planning and Procurement
Transparent Budgeting and Financial Reporting
Summary of NRW Governance Bottlenecks and Opportunities
11. Opportunity Analysis: South Africa and Mozambique
Opportunity Analysis
Overview of Opportunities in Non-revenue Water (NRW): A Regional Perspective
Opportunity Analysis for the Water Value Chain, South Africa, 2013-14
Opportunity Analysis for the Water Value Chain, Mozambique, 2013-14
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List of Figures & Charts

1. Identified Quick Facts in Select Municipalities, South Africa and Mozambique, 2015
2. Supply vs. Demand Analysis for Water, South Africa, 2015
3. Annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Population, South Africa, 2012–2018
4. Provincial Breakdown of Population, Population Percentage Split, GDP Percentage Split, and GDP per Capita, South Africa, 2015
5. Annual Expenditure on Water Purchase—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2014–2016
6. Water Accessibility/Penetration—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2010–2012
7. Water Tariff Analysis and Trends—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2015–2016
8. Water Accessibility/Penetration—City of Tshwane, South Africa, 2010–2012
9. Water Tariff Analysis and Trends—City of Tshwane, South Africa, 2015–2016
10. Supply vs. Demand Analysis for Water, Mozambique, 2015
11. Annual GDP and Population, Mozambique, 2012–2018
12. Water Accessibility/Penetration—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
13. Water Consumption per Capita—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
14. Water Tariff Analysis and Trends—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2014
15. Evolution of Water Tariffs (Average)—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2003–2014
16. Municipal Authority’s Earnings through Provision of Water Services—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2010-2013
17. Water Accessibility/Penetration—City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
18. Evolution of Water Tariffs (Average)—City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2003–2014
19. Municipal Authority’s Earnings through the Provision of Water Services—City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013


1. Population Progression—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, June 2010–June 2013
2. System Input Volume vs. Water Demand—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2010–201
3. Comparison of System Input Volume, Authorised Unit Consumption, and Water Loss—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2010–2012
4. Revenue Water vs. Non-revenue Water—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2010–2012
5. IWA Water Balance (Million KL)—Nelson Mandela Bay, South Africa, 2013
6. Population Progression—City of Tshwane, South Africa, June 2010–June 2013
7. System Input Volume vs. Water Demand—City of Tshwane, South Africa, 2010–2012
8. Comparison of System Input Volume, Authorised Unit Consumption, and Water Loss—City of Tshwane, South Africa, 2010–2012
9. Revenue Water vs. Non-revenue Water—City of Tshwane, South Africa, 2010–2012
10. IWA Water Balance (Million KL)—City of Tshwane, South Africa, 2013
11. Population Progression—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
12. System Input Volume vs. Water Demand—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
13. Revenue Water vs. Non-revenue Water—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
14. IWA Water Balance (Million KL)—City of Maputo Municipality, Mozambique, 2013-14
15. Population Progression—City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
16. System Input Volume vs. Water Demand—City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
17. Revenue Water vs. Non-revenue Water—City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2010–2013
18. IWA Water Balance (Million KL)–City of Beira Municipality, Mozambique, 2013
19. Water Service and NRW Scenario in Municipalities, South Africa and Mozambique, 2013-14



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