Currently, 4 different standards are being used by OEMs for DC charging, namely, CCS (1 and 2), CHAdeMO, and Tesla. CCS is used by more than 90% of German automakers, CHAdeMO has been adopted by Japanese OEMs, and Tesla is a proprietary charging standard for Tesla cars. The focus is on standardization and interoperability in the form of associations and partnerships, which will boost the market by implementing standardized business models across international borders. A standard has been approved across different geographies. The United States follows Combo Connector Standard (CCS) – 1 and Europe follows CCS – 2. CCS works for both AC and DC charging and has been adopted by over 70% of the OEMs in the EV industry. The Middle East has adopted the European standard type 2 connector for AC charging; however, the introduction of a combined charging system is still being debated. In terms of DC charging, CHAdeMO charging stations are being installed.
Table of Contents
Executive SummaryUpcoming TrendsEV Charging StationsEV Charging PointsAC Existing Charging Points—Level 1, 2, Chademo, CCS and TeslaAC Charging Plug and Connector TypeCHAdeMOResearch Scope, Objectives, Background, and MethodologyResearch ScopeResearch Aim and ObjectivesDefinitionsEV SegmentationDefinition of EV Charging InfrastructureOverview of EV Charging Infrastructure—Emerging Trends, Investments, Connector GeometryUpcoming TrendsInvestment TrendsEV Charging StationsAC Charging Plug and Connector TypeDC Charging Connector GeometryCombined Charging System (CCS)Potential Business ModelsStandards and LegislationStandards and Legislation for EV ChargingStandards and Legislation for EV Charging (continued)Standards and Legislation for EV Charging (continued)Interoperability of Charging StationsStandardization of charging stations Standardization of charging stations (continued)Standardization of charging stations (continued)Infrastructure Development in EuropeDefinition of EV Charging InfrastructureElectric Charging InfrastructureAC Charging Plug and Connector TypeDC Charging Plug and Connector Type Charging Infrastructure Investment EV Charging PointsInfrastructure Development in the United StatesDefinition of EV Charging InfrastructureExisting Charging Infrastructure—The United StatesAC and DC Charging Plug and Connector Type Current Investment Trends–The United StatesAC Existing Charging Points—Level 1, 2, Chademo, CCS and TeslaInfrastructure Development in JapanClassification of EV Charging InfrastructureMarket Trends—JapanAC and DC Charging Plug and Connector TypeKey Highlights—JapanInfrastructure Development in ChinaClassification of EV Charging InfrastructureMarket Trends—ChinaAC & DC Charging Plug and Connector Types—ClassificationEV Charging—Existing and Future Infrastructure by RegionDestination ChargingTesla Charging TerminologiesTesla Type 2 Supercharger and IEC 62196-3 Type 2 NormalisedTesla SuperchargerCHAdeMOTesla Supercharging Network Deployment StrategyKey ConclusionsKey ConclusionsThe Last Word—3 Big PredictionsLegal DisclaimerAppendixMarket Engineering Methodology