As indicated by the World Health Organization, stroke is the second-leading cause of death for people over the age of 60 and is the fifth-leading cause of death for those between the ages of 15 and 59. The incidence of stroke is expected to increase by 25% over the next 20 years. Over 40% of ischemic stroke victims have permanent symptoms and only 10% fully recover. Neural stem cells from the brain are capable of dividing, multiplying, and differentiating into different types of brain cells and, thus, may be very useful for the regeneration of brain tissue damaged by ischemic stroke. Although many early human studies indicate a significant improvement of neurological, neuromuscular, and immunological functions, additional clinical trials, either planned or currently underway, will be invaluable as we move forward to elucidate the beneficial nature of stem cell therapy for ischemic stroke.