In the OSS/BSS market, CSPs have only recently begun to embrace commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions. Traditionally, large CSPs had the luxury of insisting that their processes be implemented their way and invested the time and money to do so. CSPs utilized custom-developed OSS/BSS solutions or vendor solutions that often required extensive customized integration. In both cases the total cost of ownership (TCO) was high. Now, with more complex networks to manage and more customers to support in more ways, CSPs have embraced pre-integrated, best-of-breed COTS solutions as a way to reduce OSS/BSS complexity and expense.