Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Rwanda are key economies in the fast-growing East African region, which is emerging as a hotbed for energy-related investments. The expanding urban population, hydrocarbon discoveries, and the growing demand for modern energy forms, such as electricity and natural gas, will drive a socio-economic transformation wherein countries will look to achieve a middle income economy status over the next decade. Oil, natural gas, coal, hydropower, wind, and geothermal will be the major sources of primary energy for these countries. Over the next 10-15 years, the aforementioned 4 countries are expected to add anywhere between 40,000 MW and 50,000 MW to their installed generation capacity, while hydrocarbon trade will benefit the economies of Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia. Private sector participation through finance and technology, as well as regional energy interconnections, are critical to realising the true potential of the existing energy reserves. Poor infrastructure facilities, the lack of competent local human capital, and inadequate financing sources are significant bottlenecks to energy development in the region.